If you want to skip to the Character - Instrument list, the list is below this paragraph. The paragraph is just meant to summarize the proof within the Hetalia franchise, that the characters in the list below, do in fact play the musical instruments that the list says they do.

According to certain episodes/scenes in Hetalia, we know that Austria plays the piano, and that Prussia plays the flute. Besides that, there aren't any official Hetalia episodes/scenes, or even any scenes from the Hetalia movies that reveal to us which instrument(s) do any of the other countries play, or even whether or not any of those other countries even play musical instruments, in the first place. But, in the lyrics of Hatafutte Parade, each country (that his or her own official or fanmade version of the song, with singing/vocals/lyrics in it) tells us (within their own version of the song, of course) that they play a certain musical instrument. So, for a good amount of the Hetalian nations, the lyrics of their own version of Hatafutte Parade revealed which instrument(s), or at least AN instrument that they play. Lastly, to see which countries play which instruments, we want to look at the album covers of some of the Hetalia soundtracks, as many of them depict some of the Hetalian countries holding and/or playing different musical instruments, which is a very helpful hint in determining which countries play an instrument(s) and which specific instrument(s) they play, if they do play one or more. Overall, these soundtrack covers depict the countries playing the same musical instruments that they said they did in the lyrics of the Hatafutte Parade, except for some changes: they show that America also plays the electric guitar (and not only just the acoustic guitar), the mandolin and the euphonium, that Prussia also plays the electric guitar, that Sweden also plays the triangle, that Finland also plays handheld ringing bells, that Russia also plays the piano, that England also plays the piccolo, that China is also a percussionist of sorts, and that Germany also plays the flute and the bass, and that Japan also plays the drums. When we put together all the possible evident information about the Hetalian characters (countries) regarding musical instruments, as described above, what we can conclude for certain is that America, Austria, Belgium, China, Denmark, England, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Italy, Japan, The Philippines, Prussia, Romano, Russia, Spain, Sweden, and Turkey, play musical instrument(s), and/or are conductors (specific musical instrument/role depending on the individual country/character, of course).

With all the evidence described above, this is the list of all the countries in Hetalia that play instruments, and what instrument(s)/musical roles those specific countries evidently play for certain:

Denmark - Conductor

Italy - Conductor, Acoustic Guitar, and Electric Guitar

England - Piccolo, and Bass Guitar

Prussia - Flute, and Electric Guitar

Germany - Flute, Bass Guitar, and Drums

Iceland - Violin

Belgium - Saxophone

France - Accordion

America - Acoustic Guitar, Electric Guitar, Mandolin, and Euphonium

Spain - Flamenco Guitar

Austria - Piano

Romano - Tambourine

Estonia - Drum Machine

Japan - Ryūteki (bamboo flute), and Drums

Philippines - Tambuli

Turkey - Zurna and Baglama

Finland - Kantele, and handheld ringing bells

Greece - Lyre

Russia - Balalaika, and Keyboard/Synthesizer

China - Érhù (Chinese violin), and Percussion

Sweden - Nyckelharpa, and Triangle

Hungary - Tekerőlant (hurdy-gurdy)

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