America/England or England/America is a popular pairing involving the characters America and England. The pairing is sometimes referred to as Joker, a portmanteau of the first syllables of the characters' human last names (Jones and Kirkland). USUK, US being taken from United States while UK was taken from United Kingdom, is the most common name for the pairing. Another name for the paring is Libertea

The denominations of Spades' Royal Couple and Time Pairing are both references to the canonical universe of Cardverse, where both of them are respectively shown to be the King and Queen of The Kingdom Of Spades that holds the utmost power and Time.

The term, 味覚音痴コンビ(Mikaku Onchi Combi), Tasteless Combination, is also commonly used in the Japanese fandom, possibly referring to England's abysmal cooking, and America's preference for brightly colored food.


America and England have a quite complicated relationship due to mainly from the American Revolution timeline. They both are currently close friends.

Baby America

During a visit to the New World (America), Sweden and Finland caught sight of a little boy in the wilderness. When England and France heard about this, each thought that the child was his little brother, resulting in a quarrel over the ownership of America. France attempted to win America over with his food, which depressed England because he knew his cuisine couldn't compare to France's, but America chose England after he saw him crying.

After gaining custody of America, England vowed to work hard to keep him safe. However, when America (still only a child) effortlessly lifted a rampaging bison off the ground, England began to think that America might not need such protection after all.

Colonial America

In his childhood, America was extremely fond of his "big brother" England, enjoying his cooking and becoming upset when England had to depart for Europe. England, in turn, paid special attention to the boy by giving him toys and clothes. He told America to do his best and become strong while he was away, but in his next visit he was stunned to discover that America had grown taller than him. It has also been noted that England would sleep with America whenever he was spooked by something ghost-related. Despite this, England would always fall asleep quickly, and America would remain frightened.

The American Revolution

The brotherly relationship between England and America changed irreversibly when an older America declared to England that he was no longer his little brother and wanted to be independent. England first tried to persuade him to change his mind by writing him letters but it didn't give the desired effect on America. England, unwilling to let this happen, managed to overpower America but ultimately found himself unable to shoot his former colony. When England collapsed into tears at America's feet, America looked down and remembered when he looked up to England as a child; he then comments that England used to be so great.

Industrial Revolution

England was known as the Factory Of The World as he had created a lot of advanced g

America giving his opinion while England cried out.

oods but he grew agitated when Germany and Prussia modernised his machine and selling it better than him.

After getting through lots of of intimidating recommendations by some nations, it was last America's turn. America was clueless on what's going on and said that if it was him, he'd make the design more cool and trendy but before he could continue, England cut in and exclaimed in relief that he could improvise design. He was excited to finally do something that could beat his rivals and the outgoing global market.

The War Years

America and England were both part of the Allied Forces during World War II. Despite this, the two did not get along with each other. England in particular was still bitter about the Revolutionary War and was quick to deride America's plans. America was just as quick to retort, saying that England's scones were awful. An enraged England tried to choke America upon hearing this while exclaiming he had made the scones himself just for him.

America showing his plane to England.

England often tried to outmaneuver or humiliate America but never was successful. In one instance, he tried to get America drunk but ended up becoming drunk himself; he went on a rant about how America wouldn't have gotten far if it weren't for him and cried about America's ungratefulness.

America and England drinking with each other.

In one strip, America and England were shipwrecked together on an island (that turned out to be Seychelles) America claimed that being stuck with the other was the worst fate imaginable. During the night, England commented on how cold it was but America retorted that he would not help warm him up. England argued that he was not implying such a thing.

In three separate strips, England was shown to be ill. When France informed America that England was sick, America exclaimed that he knew a cure and placed a hamburger on England's forehead (America did not know what a cold was). In another strip, England asks America to say his name like he used to; the younger refused, but ended up yelling out England's name when he appeared to have died. In the third one, included in the published manga, England confessed to America that he did not hate him and was on the verge of admitting something else before falling unconscious. America feigned glee at his apparent death, knowing that it would shock him into waking up.

African War Front

In Episode 127: African War Front! Part 2, America came to assist England with his battle at Africa. En

America and England arguing while a soldier looked nearby,

gland was first shocked of his unannounced arrival and spilled his tea while the latter announced the Americans' troop arrival. He called England old for having trouble fending off Germany and Italy, much to England's dismay. The both of them soon argued over military tactics with England claiming that he wouldn't rush into battle just like America. A soldier watching them exclaimed that even though they're brothers, they're nothing alike. The two of them stopped in the middle of their argument and became deeply flustered while England denied it. America cheerfully said that he'd go and meet the locals but England didn't tell him that they didn't take well upon Americans. America was horrified when he met them a

America and England both becoming flustered.

nd sat gloomly in the corner while England laughed at his fate. Sooner, he stopped and watched worriedly at America, he walked closer and nervously told him that he'd get that all the time. However, America turned and he was roasting a marshmello with a lighter, clearly not hearing what England had said.

England said in frustration that he'd never comfort America again.


In a strip set during the 1800s, America went to Japan to befriend whales. When England heard about this, he offered to become America's friend but was turned down.

In one strip England asks America for a rubber (English people say 'rubber' instead of 'eraser'). America misunderstands this and asks him if he even has a partner. He gives a confused England a condom and seems annoyed about it.

In the second part of the Buon San Valentino strips, England learned that America had withdrawn h

England giving America a unicorn on his birthday.

is troops while grumbling about not getting chocolate from England. England showed up at his house with a chocolate bar, blushing heavily and stuttering, only to find America already eating a bag of chocolate.

In a preview of the English dub, France states that the two should stop releasing "sexual tensions" and continue the meeting, prompting England to be surprised that France had made a valid point, even though America says what, and England appears to not have heard the whole sentence.

Modern Life

America and England have a long-running contest to scare each other at Halloween. England always won due to America's fear of ghosts, until America enlisted Japan's help. In the Happy Birthday strip, England showed up at America's birthday party claiming that, around this time of year, he always felt horrible; he goes on to describe in detail that he has nightmares, wakes up in pain, and is unable to eat or sleep, but also says that he might as well go to a party or two to end the week. America then told him that he enjoyed remembering how he humiliated England on that day and that he always feels awesome a week in advance. Initially, England looked hurt but, when America said that he lied, he become annoyed instead; America was delighted that no matter what, England is still himself. America was then given a present, but it turned out to be a boxing glove that punched him in the face when he opened it.

However, there was a real gift inside this prank bag, although it is uncertain what it was; at this point we only see Japan commenting that England knows how to make good puns.

In the published manga, one strip shows England criticizing America about his immaturity and how he does not listen to others. America replies by making a scathing comment about England's scones, annoying the other into releasing profanity; he says that he was used to this side of England. In a separate panel, England silently curses America and reminisces about him when he was younger, commenting on how "cute" and "innocent" he used to be. His flashbacks include America when he was a baby telling England to "dwop dead" when he brought over a book on philosophy; and America as a teen telling England to "drop dead" when he raised taxes. The America in the present also happens to be saying "Drop dead England!", suggesting that the only thing that changed is England's perspective on things.

Fan Speculations

Many fans believe that England's behavior towards the adult America is reflective of a tsundere (an anime term for a character that acts cranky and combative to his/her love interest but harbors a hidden sentimental side for him/her) because the insults he directs toward America seem to stem from his hurt over America leaving him. In the first part of the Christmas 2007 strip, a drunken England reveals that he suffered from a broken heart for at least a century. He doesn't say outright who the object of his affections was, but most fans agree that it was America.

America's behavior towards England can be interpreted similarly; the only times he gets melancholic is when he remembers his former relationship with England and how it ended badly. But instead of showing this to England, he goes out of his way to tease or infuriate the other, which some fans see as his way of hiding what he really feels about England.

There is also a common theory that one of the reasons America had rebelled against England is because he began to develop feelings for him as he got older and realized that England would never see him as a potential love interest if he continued as his little brother. Thus, he became determined to make England see him as an equal, even if it meant breaking away from him and becoming his own country.

The first and only reveal of the Cardverse universe based on chips designed by Arte Stella.

It is common in fanfiction (and, for that matter, fan art) to see that both nations have harbored feelings for each other since the Revolution and even possibly before. Another common fanfiction trait is that both England and America assume that their more-than-platonic emotions are one-sided. One other famous fanfiction troop involves the Cardverse universe, as the dimension seems to be a mixture of fantasy and politics.


While America/England has been one of the most popular and oldest ships in the fandom, the debate on whether this ship is incestuous has been long, but neither side of the arguments is truly confirmed by Hima. Only pieces drawn from Hima's works can give any sign if it is or not.

Arguments that it is

  • England raised America.

Arguments against

  • The "raise" in the system of Hetalia may not be the usual "raise" in human context. Nations raise each other up and influence each other - that is just how history is and how countries grow:
    • In the argument for influences, it can be seen that Seychelles, America and Canada do not have England's eyebrows, to which France says is due to his influence. That is one example of how countries culturally influence each other, which is true about history.
    • This may start the argument that America and Canada are England and France's children:
      • England is not their father as Himaruya would have introduced them that way. There is a lack of fathers and mothers in the system of Hetalia - even Italy and Rome's relation was grandfather and grandson.
      • Note that Hima used the word 'influence', not 'genes'.
        • This can mean cultural influence or political influence, thus why Hong Kong and India have thick eyebrows despite not having the same origins or, in India's case, being historically older than the British brothers.
  • England and America's pre-Revolution relationship was colonisation, and while one can argue they view each other brotherly anyway, they never called each other brothers, so there is not 100% canon way to know that they do view each other as brothers:
    • England rejected America's suggestion if he should call him 'brother'. While this was because England seemed to have a trauma surrounding the word 'brother' due to his real brothers, many fans speculate this is because England knew deep down that they were not brothers:
      • In the African War Front episode, when a soldier claimed they were brothers, England was the one who dismissed it, despite the fact that it would usually be America, the one who revolted, to refute that, showing he himself knows that they aren't brothers;
        • Important to remember it's an anime: meaning it's influenced by Asian culture/views. (1) In Asian culture, calling a friend "brother" doesn't necessarily mean they view each other as brothers. (2) In Asian culture, it's common for people, especially for tsunderes in animes, to want to be called "big brother" or "big sister" or even the accidental "mum" as it implies one is reliable.
      • The anime is created through a 2004 lens: meaning that compared to some countries can be designed as "destined to be their own country", such as America, who was already called "America" as a child in the show when his name would've been "the colonies", and merely fought his independence to become who he is in modern day time; Italy, who also fought for independence against Austria but isn't seen as his child/brother; The same goes for Norway against Denmark, and more. As side evidence, the nations' personalities are stereotypes popular in the 21st century.
    • In the dub, there have been instances where America called England "brother", but the dub is known to change the original script: In the sub, America never calls him "brother". At the same time, in the dub, France has told them, while they were fighting, to "stop releasing sexual tensions", indicating that America's address of "brother" in the dub could just be the North American informal form of addressing a male friend.
  • Their 'siblingship' is easily breakable as their pre-revolution relationship at its core was colonisation, not true brothers, and such bonds can break this way because these characters are essentially countries who work differently from a normal human being and should not be tied down by human standards.
    • Despite being an ex-colony, Denmark/Norway is not an incestuous ship.
      • This creates the argument that the rage behind this 'incest' debate was actually a mere strongly advertised bias an UsUk-hater made rather than a real point.
    • This does highlight the grey areas in Hetalia: If Norway and Iceland are brothers due to their blood ancestry, then many familial connections will be created but will only cause more confusion for those in the fandom - in the case for America and England, English people have German and French blood ancestry, while Americans have high German and Italian ancestry.
      • It is often concluded from this that no relations are familial unless the creator, who knows the system that he created best, says so (i.e. Germany and Prussia, Italy and Romano, etc.).
  • Their human surnames that were given by Himaruya, unlike the UK Brothers ("Kirkland") or Italy and Romano ("Vargas") or Germany and Prussia ("Beilschmidt"), are different ("Kirkland" vs "Jones").
    • This paves the way to the argument that Hima's human name assignments can be one of the closest canon material that confirms if one nation is related to another; meaning groups such as Ukraine, Russia and Belarus are not related, though they view each other to be siblings as they call each other 'brother and sister'; and America and Canada are not brothers either, rather their faces being identical is a way to poke fun at how Canada is invisible and easily has his contributions overshadowed by or mistaken to be America's.
    • In George deValier's works, this is applied, where America and Canada were introduced as doppelgangers instead of brothers as their surnames were unmatched ("Matthew Williams" and "Alfred F. Jones").
  • US/UK Yaoi Drama CDs were made.
    • (*Note: These yaoi drama CDs do not impact canon timeline and are usually fanservice, however, are drawn from canon material) Works of Yaoi Drama CDs tend to make it very well known if the characters are in an incest relationship. In the CD, they are not.
    • In one of the CDs, England confesses to America, "I love you. I don't know when it started but...", which paves the way to the argument that their views of each other as friends/brothers are the same as childhood friends seeing each other as a 'brother from another mother', and even in the human world, people can realise they had feelings for the other all along, just as England's "I don't know when it started" in the drama CD.
  • Cardverse
    • Cardverse is a canonical universe supported by Hima, and America and England are the King and Queen. This may be the closest canon signal that Hima does not object to the ship nor sees it incestual.

If Hima does confirm that they are ex-brothers rather than normal brothers who are still brothers, this means that it is in the system of Hetalia that such bonds can be broken, i.e., for those who prefer to be respectful, it should be acceptable for others to ship this. However, in the meantime, it is best that until Himaruya confirms for either one side, none should push claims that their view on whether it is incest or not incest is true, and leave the uncerta​​​​​inties as they are.


  • America is revealed to be the person that brings England back home when he's drunk.
  • In a Valentine's Day strip, England gave America chocolates, something Asian cultures do mostly for romances.
  • In the Gakuen Hetalia setting, America and England were once roommates but America transferred out.
  • France wants to transfer into the room but England denies his request and still keeps America's belongings there.


Webcomic: Main Storyline

  • Hetalia Chapter 2: Allied Forces
  • Hetalia Chapter 3: G-R Nonaggression Pact
  • Hetalia Chapter 5: Lietuvis

Published Manga

  • Meeting of the World (Axis Powers Hetalia volume 1)
  • Power Ranger Allied Forces (Axis Powers Hetalia volume 1)
  • Cleaning Out the Storage (Axis Powers Hetalia volume 1)
  • The Long-Awaited Deep Emotion Is Ruined (Axis Powers Hetalia volume 1)
  • The Battle for America (Axis Powers Hetalia volume 2)
  • England, Dreaming About The Past (Axis Powers Hetalia volume 3)


  • This is America! (Çhapter 13)
  • America's Sloppy Suggestion! (Chapter 25)
  • The Pride Of The British Empire... (Chapter 26)
  • Still Got That New Year's Spirit (Chapter 31)
  • Stylish France! (Chapter 36)
  • Valentine's Day (Chapter 42)
  • The Sorrows Of England (Chapter 60)
  • I Doubt He Feels Bad About It All (Chapter 70)
  • He's Aiming for Number One at Everything (Chapter 71)
  • Not Much Confidence... (Chapter 131)
  • England Worries About The Heavy Duties on Alcohol... (Chapter 132)
  • The World Is Watching! (Chapter 155)
  • It's A Rather Long Battle (Chapter 156)
  • No Wonder He's So Sarcastic (Chapter 157)
  • I Want To Somehow... Convey These Feelings To You! (Chapter 182)
  • Like a Father, and Like an Older Brother (Chapter 193)
  • A Conflict Over England (Chapter 197)
  • A Friendly Argument (Chapter 199)
  • Let's Try To Come Up With An Analogy(Chapter 204)
  • Staring At Transformations On The Other Shore... (Chapter 234)

Webcomic: Extra Stories

  • The Battle for America
  • England and Baby America
  • Black Ships Have Come
  • Cleaning Out the Storage
  • England Catches a Cold
  • England's Last Wish
  • Buon San Valentino (Part 2)
  • Happy Birthday

Webcomic: Comic Diaries

  • Comic Diary 1
  • Comic Diary 2
  • Comic Diary 3
  • Comic Diary 6

Blog Comics

  • This Kind Of Sealand Is OO
  • Let's Think About The G8 Members!
  • I'm Watching Nothing But Old Movies
  • America When He's Not Used to the Battlefield
  • America's Crazy About Steampunk, too

Drama CDs


  • England and the Ghost At America's House


<gallery widths="200"> Image:America_england_christmas.jpg|America dragging England from a pub during Christmas. Image:Usuk_artwork.jpg|An artwork by Himaruya. Image:America_cardverse.jpg|Sketches of the Card universe. Image:America_wolf.jpg|England fainting because of the wolf head.

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